JOSHUA / YEHOSHUA / IESOUS

Abbreviations:
MT = Masoretic text
LXX = Septuagint
DSS = Dead Sea Scrolls
JOS = Josephus (Antiquities)
H = Hebrew
A = Aramaic
G = Greek
[ ] = missing from text
italics = word doesn't appear in original language

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Among the Dead Sea Scrolls, only two manuscripts of Joshua have been discovered, containing portions of only nine chapters (2-8, 10, 17).

from "The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible", by Abegg, Flint & Ulrich (Introduction to Joshua):

Only two scrolls of the book of Joshua were recovered in the Judean Desert, but one of them makes quite an impact, and several other previously unknown parabiblical works related to Joshua that were found among the scrolls have enriched our knowledge of the ancient world.

4QJosh(a) is the oldest witness to the text of Joshua in any language, dating roughly 100 B.C., and it provides a dramatic example of the light that the scrolls shed on the Bible...

In the traditional narrative, Joshua leads the people across the Jordan, fights the battle of Jericho, mounts another victory over the city of Ai, and then eventually goes twenty miles north to Shechem to build an altar on Mount Ebal, opposite Mount Gerizim, where the Samaritans much later were to center their religion.  He then immediately marches back down south, abandoning the newly built altar and leaving it exposed in enemy territory.

On a single fragment,
4QJosh(a) contains the end of the altar-building episode, followed by the beginning of chapter 5.  This means that Joshua would have constructed the first altar in the Promised Land immediately after crossing the Jordan, and before beginning any battles of conquest.  This is, of course, what would be expected -- that in thanksgiving for the fulfillment of the promise of the land, and in order to sanctify the land to the Lord, Joshua would have immediately erected an altar there at Gilgal.  Gilgal continued to be known as an important place for worship (ch. I Sam. 10:8, 11:14-15), whereas Mount Ebal is never referred to again as a worship site for Israel.

Two further pieces of evidence clinch the significance of this scroll's sequence of events.  First, the historian Josephus, retelling the biblical story in the first century, also appears to have had a biblical text like 4QJosh(a).  He describes Joshua's building of an altar immediately after crossing the Jordan (see JOS 5.1.3-4: 16-20), while not mentioning either the journey to Mount Ebal or an altar at the point where the Masoretic Text places it (see JOS 5.1.15: 45-48).  Though he does eventually describe an altar at Shechem, it is not until noticeably later in the narrative (see JOS 5.1.19: 68-69), and certainly the tradition of Joshua's covenant ceremony at Shechem after the conquest would have been widely known (cf. Joshua 24:1).

Second, both the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Old Latin version have the reading "on Mount Gerizim" in the text of Deuteronomy 27:4, a passage in which Moses commands the building of this altar.  [Jim's note: The DSS is missing the portion of the text in Dt. 27:4 which identifies the name of the mountain]  What this undoubtedly shows is that "on Mount Ebal" in the Masoretic and Greek tradition is a later Jewish polemical change from the unacceptable Samaritan claim that the first altar was built "on Mount Gerizim."  Thus there was a three-stage history in development of this command-fulfillment passage.  First, the altar was simply to be built at an unspecified place -- wherever the people crossed the Jordan.  Second, northerners, perhaps the Samaritans, specified the site of the first altar as "on Mount Gerizim."  Finally, Jewish scribes discounted that claim by changing "Mount Gerizim" anomalously to the otherwise insignificant "Mount Ebal."


3:13

MT (ESV) = "And when the soles of the feet of the priests bearing the ark* of the LORD, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan shall be cut off from flowing**, and the waters coming down from above shall stand in one heap."

* LXX adds " of the covenant"

** LXX = "cease"


4:2-3

MT (ESV) = "Take twelve men from the people, from each tribe a man., and command them, saying, 'Take twelve stones from here out of the midst of the Jordan, from the very place where the priests' feet stood firmly, and bring them over with you and lay them down in the place where you lodge tonight.'"

LXX & DSS = "Take men from the people, one of each tribe, and charge them; and you shall take out of the midst of Jordan twelve fit stones, and having carried them across together with yourselves, place them in your camp, where you shall encamp for the night." (*)

(*) DSS adds "[After this he read all the words of the law, the blessing and the curse, just as it is written in the book of] the [l]aw.  There was not a word of all Moses commanded [Jo]shua which Joshua did not read before all [...] the Jorda[n, and] the women and children, and the stra[ngers] living among them."

NOTE
:  This addition to the end of verse 3 found in the DSS is similar to verses found at the conclusion of chapter eight (specifically, verses 34-35) in the MT, and after 9:2 in the LXX.  According to "The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible" (by Abegg, Flint & Ulrich): "The scroll apparently displays the original order, with the Masoretic and Greek texts secondarily rearranged."


4:9

MT (ESV) = And Joshua set up* twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests bearing the ark of the covenant had stood; and they are there to this day.

* LXX adds "another"


4:11

MT (ESV) = And when all the people had finished passing over, the ark of the LORD and the priests passed over before the people*.

* LXX = "covenant of the Lord passed over, and the stones in front of them"


5:1

MT (ESV) = As soon as all the kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan to the west, and all the kings of the Canaanites who were by the sea, heard that the LORD had dried up the waters of the Jordan for the people of Israel until they had crossed over, their hearts melted and there was no longer any spirit in them because of the people of Israel.

DSS = After they had removed [their feet from the Jordan, ...] the book of the law.  After that, the ark bearers [...]


5:6

MT (ESV) = For the people of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, until all the nation, the men of war who came out of Egypt, perished, because they did not obey the voice of the LORD; the LORD swore to them that he would not let them see the land that the LORD had sworn to their fathers to give to us, a land flowing with milk and honey.

H 8085: shama' - obey - (see also: Dt. 4:1)
    - to hear, to obey, to listen, to be heard of, to be regarded, to cause to hear, to proclaim, to sound aloud, (by
        implication of attention) obedience, (causative) to tell, consent, consider, declare, discern, obey, perceive, publish,
        report, understand, witness


5:14


MT (ESV) = And he said, "No*; but I am the commander of the army of the LORD.  Now I have come."  And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and worshiped** and said to him, "What does my lord say to his servant?"

* LXX omits this word

** LXX omits this phrase

H 113: 'adown (or shortened: 'adon) - lord - (see also: Gen. 18:12)
    - (from an unused root, meaning to rule) sovereign, i.e. controller (human or divine); lord, master, owner


6:17

MT (ESV) = "And the city and all that is within it shall be devoted to the LORD for destruction .  Only Rahab the prostitute and all who are with her in her house shall live, because she hid the messengers whom we sent."

H 2763: charam - destruction - (see also: I Sam. 15:3; Isa. 11:15, 34:2)
    - to seclude, specifically (by a ban); to devote to religious uses (especially destruction); destroy, doom.  Indicates
        complete and utter destruction, (physically and reflexively) to be blunt as to the nose, make accursed, consecrate,
        forfeit


6:18

MT (NKJV) = "And you, by all means abstain from the accursed things, lest you become accursed when you* take of the accursed things, and make the camp of Israel a curse, and trouble it."

* LXX adds "covet and"


6:26

MT (ESV) = Joshua laid an oath on them at that time, saying, "Cursed before the LORD be the man who rises up and rebuilds this city, Jericho.  At the cost of his firstborn shall he lay its foundation, and at the cost of his youngest son shall he set up its gates."*

* LXX adds "And thus did Ozan of Baithel; at the cost of Abiram, his firstborn, he founded it, and at the cost of his youngest, although he escaped, he set up its gates."


7:1

MT (ESV) = But the people of Israel broke faith in regard to the devoted things, for Achan the son of Carmi, son of Abdi, son Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took some of the devoted things.  And the anger of the LORD burned against the people of Israel.

H 4604: 
ma'al - broke faith - (see also: I Chr. 9:1)
    - (from 4603) treachery (i.e. sin); falsehood; an unfaithful act, grievously, transgression, trespass


7:12

MT (ESV) = "Therefore the people of Israel cannot stand before their enemies.  They turn their backs before their enemies,* because they have become devoted for destruction.  I will be with you no more, unless you destroy the devoted things from among you."

* DSS adds "not their faces,"


7:25

MT (ESV) = And Joshua said, "Why did you bring trouble on us?  The LORD brings trouble on you today."  And all Israel stoned him with stones.  They burned them with fire and stoned them with stones.

LXX = And Joshua said to Achan, "Why have you destroyed us?  May the Lord destroy you as also today."  And all Israel stoned him with stones.


8:8-14

According to "The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible", by Abegg, Flint & Ulrich : "4QJosh(a), to judge from the relative positions of the extant words in 8:8-14, had a shorter text even than the Greek, which itself is shorter than the Masoretic Text."


8:8

MT (ESV) =
"And as soon as you have taken the city, you shall set the city on fire.  You shall do according to the word of the LORD.  See, I have commanded you."

LXX = "And you shall act according to this word; see, I have commanded you.."


8:9

MT (ESV) = So Joshua sent them out.  And they went to the place of ambush and lay between Bethel and Ai, to the west of Ai, but Joshua spent that night among the people.

LXX = And Joshua sent them off, and they went to the ambush, and lay between Bethel and between Ai, from the sea of Ai.


8:13


MT (ESV) = So they stationed the forces, the main encampment that was north of the city and its rear guard west of the city.  But Joshua spent that night in the valley.

* This verse does not appear in LXX.


8:24

MT (ESV) = When Israel finished killing all the inhabitants of Ai in the open wilderness where they pursued them, and all of them to the very last had fallen by the edge of the sword, all Israel returned to Ai and struck it down with the edge of the sword.

LXX = And when the sons of Israel had finished slaying all those in Ai, those in the plains and on the mountain on the descent, there were they fully pursued them, then Joshua turned back to Ai and struck it with the edge of the sword.


8:26

MT (ESV) = But Joshua did not draw back his hand with which he stretched out the javelin until he had devoted all the inhabitants of Ai to destruction.

* This verse does not appear in LXX


8:30-9:3

LXX ends chapter 8 with verse 29, then begins chapter 9, ordering MT verses as follows: 9:1-2, 8:30-35, 9:3


9:3-4

MT (NASB) = When the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and to Ai, they also acted craftily and set out as envoys, and* took worn-out sacks on their  donkeys, and wineskins, worn-out and torn and mended...

* LXX = "they went, prepared provisions and got themselves ready.  And"


10:13

MT (ESV) = "And the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, until the nation took vengeance* on their enemies."  Is this not written in the Book of Jashar?**  The sun stopped in the midst of heaven and did not hurry to set for about a whole day.

* LXX = "God avenged Himself"

** LXX omits this phrase


11:21

MT (ESV) = And Joshua came at that time and cut off the Anakim from the hill country, from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab, and from all the hill country of Judah, and from all the hill country of Israel.  Joshua devoted them to destruction with their cities*.

* LXX = "out of all the race of Israel and out of all the mountain of Judah with their cities, and Joshua utterly destroyed them"


12:4

MT (NASB) = ...and the territory of* Og king of Bashan, one of the remnant of Rephaim, who lived at Ashtaroth and at Edrei...

* LXX omits this phrase


12:16-22

MT (NASB) = ...the king of Makkedah, one; the king of Bethel, one;* the king of Hepher, one; the king of Aphek, one; the king of Lasharon, one;** the king of Madon, one;* the king of Hazor, one; the king of Shimron-meron ***, one; the king of Achshaph, one; the king of Taanach, one; the king of Megiddo, one; the king of Kedesh, one; the king of Jokneam in Carmel, one...

* LXX omits this phrase

** LXX = "of Lasharon"

*** LXX = "; the king of Meron"


12:23-24

MT (NASB) = ...the king of Dor in the heights of Dor, one; the king of Goimm in Gilgal*, one; the king of Tirzah, one: in all thirty-one** kings.

* LXX = "Galilee"

** LXX = "twenty-nine"


15:4

MT (NASB) = And it continued to Azmon and proceeded to the brook of Egypt; and the border ended at the sea.  This shall be your* south border.

* LXX = "their"


15:21-62

There are two Greek translations for this portion of the LXX for Joshua, the variations having been labeled as follows:

LXX-A for the Codex Alexandrinus (associated with Origen and Lucian) and LXX-B for the Codex Vaticanus.


15:21-23

MT = Kabzeel, Eder, Jagur, Kinah, Dimonah, Adadah, Kadesh, Hazor, Ithnan

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Kabseel, Edrai, Iagour, Kiva, Dimona, Adada, Kedes, Ithnaziph

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Kaibaiseleel, Ara, Hasor, Ikam, Regma, Arouel, Kades, Hasorionain


15:24-26

MT = Ziph, Telem, Bealoth, Hazor-hadattah, Kerioth-hezron (Hazor), Amam, Shema, Moladah

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Telem, Baloth, Haseron (Hasor), Amam, Samaa, Molada

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Mainam, Balmainan, Haseron (Hasor), Sen, Salmaa, Molada


15:27-29

MT = Hazar-gaddah, Heshmon, Beth-pelet, Hazar-shual, Beersheba, Biziothiah, Baalah, Iim, Ezem

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Hasergadda, Baithphaleth, Hasarsoula, Bersabee, Baala, Auim, Asem

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Seri, Baiphalad, Cholaseola, Bersabee, Bala, Bakok, Asom


15:30-32

MT = Eltolad, Chesil, Hormah, Ziklag, Madmannah, Sansannah, Lebaoth, Shilhim, Ain, Rimmon, (twenty-nine)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Elthodad, Chasil, Herma, Sikeleg, Medebena, Sansanna, Laboth, Seleim, Remmon (twenty-nine)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Elboydad, Baithel, Herma Sekelak, Macharim, Sethennak, Labos, Sale, Eromoth (twenty-nine)


15:33-36

MT = Eshtaol, Zorah, Ashnah, Zanoah, En-gannim, Tappuah, Enam, Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoh, Azekah, Shaaraim, Adithaim, Gederah, Gederothaim (fourteen)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Esthaol, Saraa, Asna, Ramen, Zano, Adiathaim, Enaim, Ierimouth, Odollam, Nemra, Socho, Azeka, Sargarim, Gadera (fourteen)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Astaol, Raa, Assa, Ramen, Tano, Ilouthoth, Maiani, Iermouth, Odollam, Membra, Saocho, Azeka, Sakarim, Gadera (fourteen)


15:37-41

MT = Zenan, Hadashah, Migdalgad, Dilean, Mizpeh, Joktheel, Lachish, Bozkath, Eglon, Cabbon, Lahmas, Chitlish, Gederoth, Beth-dagon, Naamah, Makkedah (sixteen)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Sennan, Hadasa, Magdalgad, Dalaan, Maspha, Iechthael, Lachis, Bazkath, Aglon, Chabba, Lamas, Chathlos, Gaderoth, Bethdagon, Noma, Makeda (sixteen)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Senna, Hadasan, Magadagad, Dalal, Maspha, Iakareel, Laches, Basedoth, Ideadalea, Chabra, Maches, Maachos, Geddor, Bagadiel, Noman, Makedan (sixteen)


15:42-44

MT = Libnah, Ether, Ashan, Iphtah, Ashnah, Nezib, Keilah, Achzib, Mareshah (nine)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Lebna, Ather, Iephtha, Asenna, Nesib, Keila, Achzib, Maresa, Edom (nine)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Lemna, Ithak, Anoch, Iana, Nasib, Keilam, Akiezi, Kezib, Bathesar, Ailon (ten)


15:48-51

MT = Shamir, Jattir, Socoh, Dannah, Kiriath-sannah (Debir), Anab, Eshtemoh, Anim, Goshen, Holon, Giloh (eleven)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Saphir, Iether, Socho, Renna, City of Letters (Dabir), Anob, Esthemo, Anim, Gosom, Chilouon, Gelon (ten)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Samir, Iether, Socha, Renna, City of Letters (Dabir), Anon, Eskaiman, Aisam, Gosom, Chalou, Channa (eleven)


15:52-54

MT = Arab, Dumah, Eshan, Janum, Beth-tappuah, Aphekah, Humtah, Kiriath-arba (Hebron), Zior (nine)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Ereb, Esan, Rouma, Ianoum, Baiththapphoue, Aphaka, Chammata, City of Arbo (Chebron), Sior (nine)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Airem, Remna, Soma, Iemain, Baithachou, Phakoua, Heuma, City of Arbok (Chebron), Sorth (nine)


15:55-57

MT = Maon, Carmel, Ziph, Juttah, Jezreel, Jokdeam, Zanoah, Kain, Gibeah, Timnah (ten)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Maon, Chermel, Ziph, Ietta, Iezrael, Iekdaam, Zanoakim, Gabaa, Thamna (nine)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Maor, Chermel, Ozib, Itan, Iariel, Iarikam, Zakanaim, Gabaa, Thamnatha (nine)


15:58-59
 
MT = Halhul, Beth-zur, Gedor, Maarath, Beth-anoth, Eltekon (six)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Haloul, Baithsour, Gedor, Maroth, Baithanoth, Eltheken (six), Theko, Ephratha (Bethleem), Phagor, Aitam, Koulon, Tatami, Sores,  Karem, Gallim, Baither, Manocho (eleven)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Haloua, Baithsour, Geddon, Magaroth, Baithanam, Thekoum (six), Theko, Ephratha (Baithleem), Phagor, Aitan, Koulon, Tatam, Eobes, Karem, Galem, Thether, Manocho (eleven)


15:60

MT = Kiriath-baal (Kiriath-jearim), Rabbah (two)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Kariathbaal (Iarim), Harebba (two)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Kariathbaal (Iarim), Sotheba (two)


15:61-62

MT = Beth-arabah, Middin, Secacah, Nibshan, City of Salt, Engedi (six)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Baddargis, Betharaba, Madon, Sochocha, Nebsan, the cities of salt, Engaddi (seven)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Baddargis, Tharabaam, Ainon, Aichioza, Naphlazon, Sadom, Ankades (seven)


18:21-19:45

There are two Greek translations for this portion of the LXX for Joshua, the variations having been labeled as follows:

LXX-A for the Codex Alexandrinus (associated with Origen and Lucian) and LXX-B for the Codex Vaticanus.


18:21-24

MT = Jericho, Beth-hoglah, Emek-keziz, Beth-arabah, Zemaraim, Bethel, Avvim, Parah, Ophrah, Chephar-ammoni, Ophni, Geba (twelve)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Iercho, Bethagla, Amekkasis, Baitharaba, Semrim, Bethel, Auim, Haphar, Aphra, Aikaren, Kapherammin, Gabaa (twelve)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Iericho, Baitheglio, Amekasis, Baithabara, Sara, Besana, Aiin, Phara, Ephratha, Karapha, Kephira, Moni, Gabaa (twelve)


18:25-28

MT = Gibeon, Ramah, Beeroth, Mizpeh, Chephirah, Mozah, Rekem, Irpeel, Taralah, Zelah, Haeleph, Jebusite (Jerusalem), Gibeah, Kiriath (fourteen)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Gabaon, Rama, Beroth, Maspha, Chephira, Hamosa, Rekem, Ierphael, Tharala, Selaleph, Iebous (Ierousalem), Gabaath, Iarim (thirteen)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Gabaon, Rama, Beerotha, Massema, Miron, Hamoke, Phira, Kaphan, Nakan, Selekan, Thareela, Iebous (Ierousalem), Gabaothiarim (thirteen)


19:2-6

MT = Beersheba, Sheba, Moladah, Hazar-shual, Balah, Ezem, Eltolad, Bethul, Hormah, Ziklag, Beth-marcaboth, Hazar-susah, Beth-lebaoth, Sharuhen (thirteen)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Bersabee, Sabee, Molada, Hasersoual, Bathoul, Bola, Asom, Elthoulad, Herma, Sekela, Baithammarchaboth, Asersousim, Baithlabath (thirteen)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Bersabee, Samaa, Koladam, Harsola, Bola, Asom, Elthoula, Boula, Herma, Sikelak, Baithmachereb, Sarsousin, Batharoth (thirteen)


19:7-8

MT = Ain, Rimmon, Ether, Ashan (four), Baalath-beer, Ramah of the Negev

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Ain, Remmon, Ether, Asan (four), Baalethberramoth, Iameth

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Eremmon, Thalcha, Ether, Asan (four), Barek, Bameth


19:10-11

MT = Sarid, Maralah, Dabbesheth, Jokneam

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Sarid, Marala, Dabasthai, Ieknam

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Esedek, Gola, Maragella, Baitharaba, Iekman


19:12-13

MT = Sarid, Chisloth-tabor, Daberath, Japhia, Gath-hepher, Eth-kazin, Rimmon, Neah

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Sarid, Sams, Chasaloth Thabor, Dabrath, Iaphagai, Geththa, Kasim, Remmon Hammatharim Hannoua

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Seddouk, Baithsamys, Chaselothaith, Dabiroth, Phaggai, Gebere, Katasem, Remmona Hamathar Haoza


19:14-15

MT = Hannathon, Iphtahel, Kattah, Nahalal, Shimron, Idalah, Bethlehem (twelve)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Hennathoth, Gaiiephthael, Kattath, Naalol, Semron, Iadela, Baithleem

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Hamoth, Gaiphael, Katanath, Nabaal, Symoon, Iericho, Baithman


19:18-22

MT = Chesulloth, Shunem, Haoharaim, Shion, Anaharath, Rabbith, Kishion, Ebez, Remeth, En-gannim, En-haddah, Beth-pazzez, Tabor, Shahazumah, Beth-shemesh, the Jordan (sixteen)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Iezrael, Hachaseloth, Sounam, Hapheraim, Sian, Renath, Anareth, Rabboth, Kesion, Aeme, Ramath, Engannim, Enadda, Baithphases, Thaboth, Sasima, Baithsmas, the Jordan

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Iazel, Chasaloth, Sounan, Hagin, Siona, Reeroth, Anachereth, Dabiron, Kison, Rebes, Remmas, Ieon, Tomman, Aimarek, Bersaphes, Gaithbor, Salim, Baithsamys, the Jordan


19:25-26

MT = Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, Allammelech, Amad, Mishal, Carmel, Shihor-libnath

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Chelkath, Hooli, Batne, Achsaph, Amad, Masal, Carmel, Sior, Labanath

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Heleketh, Haleph, Baithok, Keaph, Elimelek, Amiel, Maasa, Carmel, Sion, Labanath


19:27-28

MT = Beth-dagon, Zebulun, Iphtahel, Beth-emek, Neiel, Cabul, Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, Great Sidon

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Bethdagon, Zaboulon, Gai Iephthael, Saphthabethaemek, Aniel, Chabol, Achran, Roob, Hamon, Kana, Sidon the great

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Baithegeneth, Zaboulon, Gai, Phthaiel, Saphthaibaithme, Inael, Choba Masomel, Elbon, Raab, Hememaon, Kanthan, Sidon the great


19:29-30

MT = Ramah, Tyre, Hosah, Achzib, Ummah, Aphek, Rehob (twenty-two)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Rama, Tyrians, Hosa, Achziph, Amma, Aphek, Raob (twenty-two)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Rama, Masphassat, Tyrians, Iasiph, Leb, Echozob, Archob, Aphek, Raau


19:33

MT = Heleph, Zaanannim, Adami-nekeb, Jabneel, Lakkum, the Jordan

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Meeleph, Maelon, Besenanim, Armai, Nakeb, Iabnel, Lakou, the Jordan

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Moolam, Mola, Besemiin, Arme, Nabok, Iephthamai, Dodam, the Jordan


19:34

MT (ESV) = Then the boundary turns westward to Aznoth-tabor and goes from there to Hukkok, touching Zebulun at the south and Asher on the west, and Judah* on the east at the Jordan.

* LXX omits this word

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Azanoth Thabor, Hikok

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Enath Thabor, Hiakan


19:35-38

MT = Ziddim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath, Chinnereth, Adamah, Ramah, Hazor, Kedesh, Edrei, Enhazor, Yiron, Migdal-el, Horem, Beth-anath, Beth-shemesh (nineteen)

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Tyre, Hamath, Rekkath, Chenereth, Adami, Rama, Hasor, Kedes, Edrai, Hasor, Iarion, Magdaliel, Horam, Baithanath,Thasmous (nineteen)

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Tyre, Homatha, Daketh, Kenereth, Armaith, Harael, Hasor, Kades, Assari, Hasor, Keroe, Megala, Harim, Baiththame, Thessamys


19:41-43

MT = Zorah, Eshtaol, Irshemesh, Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, Elon, Timnah, Ekron

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Saraa, Esthaol, Sames, Salabin, Iaalon, Iethla, Ailon, Thamna, Akkaron

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Sarath, Asa, Sammaus, Salabin, Ammon, Silatha, Ailon, Thamnatha, Akkaron


19:44-45

MT = Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, Jehud, Bene-berak, Gath-rimmon

LXX-A (*Greek spellings) = Eltheko, Gabathon, Baalon, Iouth, Banebarak, Gethremmon

LXX-B (*Greek spellings) = Alkatha, Begethon, Gebeelan, Hazor, Banaibakat,Gethremmon


22:19


MT (NASB) = "'If, however, the land of your possession is unclean*, then cross into the land of the possession of the LORD, where the LORD'S tabernacle stands, and take possession among us. Only do not rebel against the LORD, or rebel against us** by building an altar for yourselves, besides the altar of the LORD our God.'"

* LXX = "'small"

** LXX = "the Lord"


22:20

MT (ESV) = "'Did not Achan the son of Zerah break faith in the matter of the devoted things, and wrath fell upon all the congregation of Israel?  And he did not perish alone for his iniquity.'"

LXX = "'Look!  Did not Achan the son of Zerah commit a trespass from what was devoted, and there was anger upon the whole congregation of Israel?   And he was not one lone person.  Did he alone die for his own sin?'"


22:34

MT (ESV) = The people of Reuben and the people of Gad called the altar Witness, "For," they said, "it is a witness between us that the LORD is God."

LXX = And Joshua named the altar of those of Reuben and those of Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and he said: "It is a witness between them that the Lord is their God."


24:14

MT (NASB) = "Now therefore fear the LORD and serve Him in sincerity and truth; and put away the gods which  your fathers served beyond the River and in Egypt, and serve the LORD."

H 3372: yare' - fear - (see also: Dt. 6:2)
    - to fear; (moral) to revere; (causative) to make afraid or frighten; respect, be awesome

H 5647: 'abad - serve / served - (see also: Ex. 20:5)  (throughout chapter)
    - to work (in any sense), to serve, till; (causative) enslave, etc.; keep in bondage, compel, worship, obey

H 8549: tamiym - sincerity - (see also: Dt. 18:13)
    - (from 8552) entire (literal, figurative or moral); blameless; integrity, truth, without blemish, complete, full, perfect,
        sincere, sound, without spot, undefiled, upright

H 571: 'emeth - truth - (see also: Ps. 43:3; Isa. 38:3, 59:14-15; Hos. 4:1)
    - (contraction from 539) truth; stability; (figurative) certainty; trustworthiness, assured, establishment, faithful, right,
        sure, true

H 5493: suwr - put away - (see also: Dt. 5:32)
    - to turn off (literal or figurative); bring, call back.  A verb meaning to turn away, to go away, to desert, to quit,
        to keep far away, to stop, to take away, to remove, to be removed, to make depart.  The word is used equally
        in the simple and causative stems.


24:32

MT (ESV) = As for the bones of Joseph, which the people of Israel brought up from Egypt, they buried them at Shechem, in the piece of land that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of* Shechem for a hundred pieces of money**.  It became an inheritance of the descendants of Joseph.

* LXX = "Amorites living in"

** LXX = "ewe-lambs"


24:33

MT (NASB) = And Eleazar the son of Aaron died; and they buried him at Gibeah of Phinehas his son, which was given him in the hill country of Ephraim.*

* LXX adds "On that day the sons of Israel took the ark of God and carried it around in their midst.  And Phinehas served as priest in the place of Eleazar his father until he died, and he was interred in Gibeah, which was his own.  And the sons of Israel departed each to their place and to their own city.  And the sons of Israel worshiped the Asherah and Ashtaroth and the gods of the nations round about them.  And the Lord delivered them into the hands of Eglon, the king of Moab, and he dominated them eighteen years."  (* see Judges 3:13)


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